A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

Switched Capacitor Circuits I
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Switched Capacitor Circuits Making a resistor using a capacitor and switches; therefore resistance is set by a digital clock and the capacitor . Filters built in this technology are set by external clocks,

Design for reliability of low-voltage, switched- capacitor circuits
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SWITCHED- CAPACITOR circuits fill a critical role in analog/digital interfaces particularly highly integrated applications. In these applications, a complex, digital-signal-processing core is often interfaced to real-world inputs and outputs. Such applications include

Introduction to the design of transconductor- capacitor filters
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Abstract The objective of thisIntroduction to the Design of gm-C Filtersare twofold: 1) to enable the reader, who is given a set of basic filter specifications, to choose a filter topology, design the transconductor and perform SPICE simulations at the transistor level of the

Fundamentals of electrochemical capacitor design and operation
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by John R. Miller and Patrice Simon fig. 1. Electric double layer capacitor constructed by inserting two electrodes in a beaker and applying a voltage. The voltage persists after the switch is opened (right), creating two series-connected capacitors. Charges in the electric

Optimal capacitor placement in distribution network Bojnourd using DIgSILENT-part2
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Load Flow BalancedNodesLine-Ground Voltage, Magnitude [kV] Voltage, Magnitude [pu] Voltage, Angle [deg] BranchesCurrent, Magnitude Active Power [kW]Reactive Power [kvaGeneral L..

Prospects for the ultimate energy density of oxide-based capacitor anodes
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Abstract The relation between dielectric breakdown and active energy density in oxide- based capacitor systems is discussed. Of central importance for the discussion is a recently published thermochemical model predicting that the breakdown field in dry, furnace grown

A survey of electrochemical super- capacitor technology
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Abstract The electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is an emerging technology that promises to play an important role in meeting the demands of electronic devices and systems both now and in the future. This paper traces the history of the development of the

Determining dielectric constants using a parallel plate capacitor
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Because the relation between capacitance and plate separation for an ideal parallel plate capacitor is very simple, it is desirable to do experiments to examine this relation. There have been many articles relating to capacitors and dielectric materials. 1 10 A frequent

Shunt capacitor bank fundamentals and protection
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ABSTRACT Shunt capacitor banks are used to improve the quality of the electrical supply and the efficient operation of the power system. Studies show that a flat voltage profile on the system can significantly reduce line losses. Shunt capacitor banks are relatively inexpensive

Simulating switched- capacitor filters with SpectreRF
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When it comes to simulating switched- capacitor filters, designers have had to make a choice. They could simulate at the transistor-level with SPICE, but then they must give up on using AC and noise analyses. SPICE is only capable of performing these small-signal

Tetragonality of barium titanate powder for a ceramic capacitor application
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Although nano-sized barium titanate powder (BaTiO3) with a high tetragonality (large c/a) is essential to enhance the volumetric efficiency of multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) in industry, the tetragoanlity diminishes with a decrease in particle size and disappears below

Controlled synthesis of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for electrochemical capacitor electrodes
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Nanostructured CuO with diverse morphologies has been synthesized via a facile and scaleable wetchemical method, accompanied with calcination. As-prepared CuO nanostructures were characterized using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), fourier

Wind energy system voltage and energy enhancement using low cost dynamic capacitor compensatio scheme
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Abstract-The paper presents a novel low cost dynamic capacitor compensation scheme using real time dynamic error tracking and harmonic ripple based PID controller to stabilize an isolated stand alone Wind Energy Conversion Scheme (WECS) with a induction Ceramic-polymer composites are useful for a variety of applications. Composite piezoelectrics are particularly interesting as transducers for future medical devices and as capacitor material. Piezoelectric ceramics offer a number of advantages as a transducer

Electric field outside a parallel plate capacitor
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The problem of determining the electrostatic potential and field outside a parallel plate capacitor is reduced, using symmetry, to a standard boundary value problem in the half space z 0. In the limit that the gap d between plates approaches zero, the potential outside the plates is given

Evaluation of the NBS unit of resistance based on a computable capacitor
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The indicated uncertainty is an estimated 50 percent error of the reported value based on the statio tical uJlcertainty of the measurements and allowing for known sources of possible systematic errors other than in the speed of light, assuming that the speed of light c=

Single- capacitor MOSFET-C integrator using OTRA
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A highly linear MOS operational transresistance amplifier (OTRA) integrator with reduced number of capacitors and MOSFET transistors IS proposed. Only one capacitor is required for an integrator to achieve cancellation of MOSFET nonhnearities. The proposed integrator

Genetic algorithm for optimal capacitor allocation in radial distribution systems
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AbstractOptimum location and size of capacitors for a radial distribution system is presented. In the present study capacitor sizes are assumed as discrete known variables, which are to be placed on the buses such that it reduces the losses of the distribution system

A prognosis case study for electrolytic capacitor degradation in DC-DC converters
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ABSTRACT This paper proposes a model based approach for prognosis of DC-DC power converters. We briefly review the prognosis process, and present an overview of different approaches that have been developed. We study the effects of capacitor degradation on DC-

Electric vehicle capacitor test procedures manual
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Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR): The value of the resistance element when a capacitor is modeled as a series RLC circuit. ESR can be measured using current interrupt methods or ac impedance techniques. It contributes to dynamic losses in the capacitor that is, losses

A binary particle swarm optimization for optimal placement and sizing of capacitor banks in radial distribution feeders with distorted substation voltages
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Abstract This paper proposes a binary particle swarm optimization (PSO) for optimal placement and sizing of fixed capaci-tor banks in radial distribution lines with nonsinusoidal substation voltages. The objective function includes the cost of power losses and capacitor

Low Inductance-Low Temp Rise DC Bus Capacitor properties Enabling the Optimization of High Power Inverters
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Page 1. Low Inductance Low Temp Rise DC Bus Capacitor Properties Enabling the Optimization of High Power Inverters Ed Sawyer SBE Inc. May 4, 2010 PCIM 2010 Page 2. Overview Methods of determining low ESL capacitor measurements accurately ESL can then be applied to switch

Analytic calculation of the DC-link capacitor current for pulsed three-phase inverters
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Abstract-For pulsed three-phase inverters with symmetrical load the capacitor current in the dc-link circuit is analytically calculated. These calculations can be applied for a constant dcvoltage as well as for sinusoidal modulated voltages and sinusoidal currents at the output.

High energy density electrolytic-electrochemical hybrid capacitor
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Abstract A novel electrolytic/electrochemical capacitor has been developed that has five- times higher capacitance density than standard electrolytic devices. The capacitor is comprised of a pressedsintered tantalum anode, formed Ta205 dielectric, aqueous

A Capacitor in the Field of a Gravitational Wave
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The problem of an electromagnetic field in a charged capacitor located in the field of a gravitational wave is considered. It is shown that the capacitor becomes a source of electromagnetic waves with a frequency equal to that of the gravitational wave and an

Dielectric characteristics of barium strontium titanate based metal insulator metal capacitor for dynamic random access memory cell
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In this research work, the Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitor structure is designed and fabricated with barium strontium titanate (BST) oxide material as the capacitor dielectric material and silver as both top and bottom electrodes for dynamic random access memory

Design of a Wide Tuning Range Micromachined Tunable Capacitor for Wireless Communications
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ABSTRACT We present results on the development a new micro electromechanical parallel plate tunable capacitor with a wide tuning range. Different from conventional parallel plate tunable capacitors, this new tunable capacitor consists of one suspended movable top plate

New grounded capacitor current mode band-pass low-pass filters using two balanced output ICCII
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Four new grounded capacitor current mode filters with high output impedance and using two balanced output Inverting Current Conveyors (ICCII) are introduced. The circuits are classified to two classes, in class one the input current is injected at port X of the ICCII. In

Optimal capacitor placement for loss reduction in distribution systems using bat algorithm
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AbstractElectricity, today, has not only become a necessity but also a tool for determining the economic standing and growth of a nation. The exponential growth in demand over the past two decades and the widening gap between demand and supply is a growing concern.

Capacitor placement in radial distribution system for loss reduction using artificial bee colony algorithm
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AbstractThis paper presents a new method which applies an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) for capacitor placement in distribution systems with an objective of improving the voltage profile and reduction of power loss. The ABC algorithm is a new

A design method of switched- capacitor power converters by employing a ring-type power converter
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Bipolar glassy carbon electrochemical double-layer capacitor : 100,000 cycles demonstrated
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Abstract: Electrochemical and thermal activation of single glassy carbon electrodes was investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Activation conditions were varied to study the inuence on the capacitance and the Abstract An integrated circuit has been designed and fabricated in BiCMOS technology which contains three switched capacitor fourth-order filters and one continuous-time fourth- order filter, as well as all other circuitry needed for a modern hearing aid. The circuit

Ideal capacitor circuits and energy conservation
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In some introductory physics textbooks, authors point out that there is missing energy in the charging process of the capacitor circuit in Fig. 1a. 1 In some other textbooks, they present a problem in which a portion of the electric charge is transferred from a fully charged capacitor

The two- capacitor problem with radiation
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We discuss the two> capacitor problem found in many introductory physics texts in which there appears to be missing energy in an ideal, zero> resistance circuit, following the sudden charging of one capacitor from another. The paradox of this missing energy is

Analysis of DC link capacitor voltage balance in multilevel active power filters
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Abstract This paper presents results of simulation of a three-phase parallel active power filter implemented with:-three and five level diode clamped (DC) inverter;-isolated series h-bridge (ISHB) three and five level inverter. There will be clarified effect of voltage unbalance on

A CMOS DCCII with a grounded capacitor based cascadable all-pass filter application
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Abstract. The differential current conveyor (DCCII) is a versatile current-mode active element, which has a current differencing capability. In this study, a new CMOS DCCII implementation is introduced. As an application example, a novel voltage-mode (VM) first- The last few decades have witnessed an ever increasing interest in ferroelectric ceramics because of their applications in a wide range of devices. Ferroelectric ceramics possess extremely high dielectric constant which makes them unenviable for making miniaturized single- and multi-layer

Heuristic optimization techniques to determine optimal capacitor placement and sizing in radial distribution networks: a comprehensive review
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Abstract. Capacitors in power systems are used to supply reactive power to minimize loss and to improve the voltage profile. The appropriate placement of capacitors is also important to ensure that system power losses and total capacitor costs are minimal. The capacitor

Electronically controllable grounded capacitor current-mode quadrature oscillator using single MO-CCCDTA
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Abstract. This paper presents an electronically controllable grounded capacitor quadrature oscillator using single multiple-output current controlled current differencing transconductance amplifier (MO-CCCDTA) as an active element. The proposed circuit

Asymptotics of some nonlinear eigenvalue problems for a MEMS capacitor : Part I: Fold point asymptotics
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Abstract. Several nonlinear eigenvalue problems modeling the steady-state deflection of an elastic membrane associated with a MEMS capacitor under a constant applied voltage are analyzed using formal asymptotic methods. The nonlinear eigenvalue problems under consideration represent ABSTRACT A computer study was performed to evaluate the switching-surge voltages associated with the energization of shunt capacitor banks. Various methods of controlling these switching-surge voltages are studied and a comparative analysis is made. The

Optimal capacitor placement on radial distribution feeders in presence of nonlinear loads using binary particle swarm optimization
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ABSTRACT Harmonic distortion is increasing in distribution power systems due to the proliferation of nonlinear distorting loads. Capacitor significantly influences the propagation of system harmonics, and could cause parallel resonance. Therefore, the optimal selection

Switched- capacitor circuits with low op-amp gain sensitivity
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ABSTRACT Switched capacitor integrator and amplifier stages are discussed which are compensated for both dc offset and finite op-amp gain effects. This makes Che use of simple single-stage amplifiers possible even in high-selectivity and/or high-accuracy circuits, and

DVCCs based high input impedance voltage-mode first-order allpass, highpass and lowpass filters employing grounded capacitor and resistor
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Abstract. A voltage-mode high input impedance first-order allpass, highpass and lowpass filters using two differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs), one grounded capacitor and one grounded resistor is presented. The allpass, highpass and lowpass allpass signals can

Coordinated design of thyristor controlled series capacitor and power system stabilizer controllers using velocity update relaxation particle swarm optimization
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The thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) and power system stabilizer (PSS) can combine with each other for further damping and stability; therefore, their coordination is very important. In this paper, we use TCSC and PSS simultaneous controllers to increase

Capacitor placement in radial distribution system for improve network efficiency using artificial bee colony
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Abstract Increasing application of capacitor banks on distribution networks is the direct impact of development of technology and the energy disasters that the world is encountering. To obtain these goals the resources capacity and the installation place are of

tolerance for FD dark current and PD overflow current characteristics of wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor using a lateral overflow integration capacitor
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Abstract In a wide dynamic range (WDR) CMOS image sensor featuring a lateral overflow capacitor in a pixel, the tolerance for the floating dimisión (FD) dark current and the photodiode (PD) overflow current characteristics are discussed. The high tolerance for the

Effect of pore size distribution of activated carbon electrodes on electric double-layer capacitor performance
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Abstract: The present work relates to the effect of pore size distribution (PSD) of activated carbon electrodes on electric double-layer capacitor performance in a 30 wt.% H2SO4 solution using nitrogen gas adsorption, Boehm method, ac-impedance spectroscopy, and

Optimal capacitor placement in actual configuration and operational conditions of distribution systems using RCGA
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One of the most effective and useful methods in reducing the power losses of distribution networks is utilization of optimal capacitor placement. By using shunt capacitors, the reactive power needed for loads is provided so that besides the reduction of losses the voltage

Capacitor placement in radial distribution networks through a linear deterministic optimization model
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Abstract The classical optimization problem for reducing investment costs and energy loss in radial distribution systems is addressed through a strategy of linear approximations and new variable representation. The linear approximation of the problem is performed in two

Optimal design of a single-input parallel DC-DC converter designed by switched capacitor techniques
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Abstract In this letter, electrical characteristics of nanolam-inate Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 on p- GaN MOS capacitor with and without PMA and (NH4) 2Sx treatments were investigated. I V and C V characteristics were improved by both PMA and (NH4) 2Sx treatments. The

Entropy change when charging a capacitor : A demonstration experiment
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In recent issues of this Journal, two articles2 appeared which contribute to the treatment of the second law of ther-modynamics in an undergraduate student course in physics. Both papers illustrate the statement that an irreversible process can be transformed into a

Compensated layout for automated accurate common-centroid capacitor arrays
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Abstract-In this paper, a layout scheme for accurate common-centroid rectangular unit- capacitor arrays is presented with detailed explanation of the rules used to improve matching. This layout technique is combined with a common-centroid arbitrary-value

Experimenting in the optimal capacitor placement and control problem with hybrid mathematical-genetic algorithms
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Abstract-Genetic algorithms (GA) have shown how natural evolution and genetic based procedures can be used as a powerful optimization tool. Although a GA alone is able to handle optimization problems, its performance can be improved with the combination of

Direct growth of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes on conducting substrates using ethanol for electrochemical capacitor
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Abstract: A massive growth of vertically-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA- SWCNTs) from aluminum oxide (Al-O)-supported Co catalyst and high purity ethanol was performed using alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD) technique. SWCNTs

Prototype super- capacitor photovoltaic streetlight with xLogic superRelay functionality
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Abstract: In this paper, the authors present and discuss the design of a prototype super- capacitor photovoltaic (PV) streetlight with xLogic SuperRelay (PLC) functionality. Deep- cycle batteries used in solar electrical systems, generally have low efficiencies, long

Capacitor placement in unbalanced power systems
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Abstract This paper presents a capacitor placement method for three phase unbalanced power systems. The method aims to minimize not only the power losses and capacitor costs, but also the distortions due to harmonics present in the power system. The proposed method

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